Important terms regarding armature winding
The meaning of the following terms used in connection with armature winding should be clearly kept in mind.
It may be variously defined as :
i) The periphery of the armature divided by the number of poles of the generator i.e. the distance between two adjacent poles.
ii) It is equal to the number of armature conductors (or armature slots) per pole. If there are 48 conductors and 4 poles, the pole pitch is 48/4 = 12.
The length of a wire lying in the magnetic field and in which an e.m.f. is induced, is called a conductor (or inductor) as. for example, length AB or CO in Fig. 26.21
Coil and Winding Element
With reference lo Fig. 26.21. the two conductors AB and CD along with their end connections constitute one coil of the armature winding. The coil may be single-turn coil( Fig. 26.21) or multi-turn coil (Fig. 26.22). A single-turn coil will have two conductors. But a multi-turn coil may have many conductors per coil side. In Fig. 26.22, for example, each coil side has 3 conductors. The group of wires or conductors constituting a coil side of a multi-turn coil is wrapped with a tape as a unit (Fig. 26.23) and is placed in the armature slot. It may be noted that .since the beginning and the end of each coil must be connected to a commutator bar. there are as many commutator bars as coils for both the lap and wave windings The side of a coil (1 -turn or multiturn ) is called a winding element. Obviously, the number of winding elements is twice the number of coils.
Coil-span or Coil-pitch (YS)
It is the distance measured in terms of armature slots (or armature conductors) between two sides of a coil. It is. in fact, the periphery of the armature spanned by the two sides of the coil.
If the pole span or coil pitch is equal to the pole pilch (as in the case of coil A in Fig. 26.24 where pole-pitch of 4 has been assumed), then winding is called full-pitched. It means that coil span is 180 electrical degrees. In this case, the coil sides lie under opposite poles, hence the induced e.m.fs. in them are additive. Therefore, maximum e.m.f. is induced in the coil as a whole, it being the sum of the e.m.f.s induced in the two coil sides. For example, if there arc 36 slots and 4 poles, then coil span is 36/4 = 9 slots. If number of slots is 35. then Ys = 35/4 = 8 because it is customary to drop fractions.
If the coil span is less than the pole pitch (as in coil B where coil pitch is 3/4th of the pole pitch), then the winding is fractional-pitched. In this case, there is a phase difference between the e.m.fs. in the two sides of the coil. Hence, the total e.m.f. round the coil which is the vector sum of e.m.fs. in the two coil sides, is less in this case as compared to that in the first case
Pitch of a Winding (Y)
In general, it may be defined as the distance round the armature between two successive conductors which are directly connected together. Or, it is the distance between the beginnings of two consecutive turns.
Y = YB – YF ………… for lap winding
= YB + YF —— for wave winding
In practice, coil-pitches as low as eight-tenths of a pole pitch are employed without much serious reduction in the e.m.f. Fractional-pitched windings are purposely used to effect substantial saving in the copper of the end connections and for improving commutation.
Back Pitch (YB)
The distance, measured in terms of the armature conductors, which a coil advances on the back of the armature is called back pitch and is denoted by YB ,
As seen from Fig. 26.28. element I is connected on the back of the armature to clement 8. Hence. YB = (8 – 1) = 7.
Front Pitch (YF)
The number of armature conductors or elements spanned by a coil on the front (or commutator end of an armature) is called the front pitch and is designated by YF Again in Fig. 26.28, element 8 is connected to clement 3 on the front of the armature, the connections being made at the commutator segment. Hence. YF = 8-3 = 5.
Alternatively, the front pitch may be defined as the distance (in terms of armature conductors) between the second conductor of one coil and the first conductor of the next coil which are connected together at the front ie. commutator end of the armature. Both front and back pitches for lap and wave-winding are shown in Fig. 26.25 and 26.26.
Resultant Pitch (YR)
It is the distance between the beginning of one coil and the beginning of the next coil to which it is connected (Fig. 26.25 and 26.26).
As a matter of precaution, it should be kept in mind that all these pitches, though normally stated in terms of armature conductors, are also sometimes given in terms of armature slots or commutator bars because commutator is, after all, an image of the winding
Commutator Pitch (YG)
It is the distance (measured in commutator bars or segments) between the segments to which the two ends of a coil arc connected. From Fig. 26.25 and 26.26 it is clear that for lap winding. YG is the difference of YB and Yf whereas for wavewinding it is the sum of YB and Yf Obviously, commutator pitch is equal to the number of bars between coil leads. In general. Yc equals the ‘plex’ of the lap-wound armature. Hence, it is equal to 1, 2,3,4 etc. for simplex-, duplex, triplex-and quadruplex etc. lap-windings.